Monday, April 13, 2009

Post #10

Typical front page of Texas Tech University's student newspaper The Daily Toreador
A student newspaper is a newspaper run by students of a university, high school, middle school, or other school. These papers traditionally cover local and, primarily, school or university news. Working for one's high school newspaper is sometimes an extracurricular activity, but often, journalism classes are offered. Journalism students learn about the journalistic profession and also produce the paper. Some schools have a basic class in which students only learn about newspapers, and a class that produces the newspaper.

[edit] Student press in the United States of America

[edit] First Amendment protections for student media in the United States
Student press in the United States is protected in part by United States Supreme Court decisions such as Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District and Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier, and numerous other decisions, including those at the regional and state levels.
Some states have laws which enhance the U.S. Constitution in protecting student expression. For a more detailed review of state and national student press rights, see the Student Press Law Center's site here.

[edit] John Silber and the b.u. exposure
University administrations have learned to get around constitutional protections and effectively diminish student newspaper critics by following the example of former Boston University President John Silber, who on the advice of Harvard Law School Professor Alan Dershowitz, eliminated all funding for student newspapers in the 1970s in an attempt to suppress on-campus criticism. Silber's policy went so far as to ban student organizations funded by the university from placing advertisements in the student press. With his hands-off policy, Silber was able to eliminate the independence of The Daily News and financially crippled the more-radical b.u. exposure. The exposure sued Silber and the University for infringement of their First Amendment rights, but the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts eventually dismissed their case. Silber's "hands-off" policy was validated.

[edit] High school vs. college student press rights
Hazelwood and Tinker offer conflicting versions of student free expression. Student-directed publications may indeed be considered open or limited public forums for student expression, offering students freedom of expression under both Hazelwood and Tinker.
Hazelwood, for example, does not say administrators must review or censor their papers before publication. In fact, journalism education organizations, like the Journalism Education Association, argue that prior review has no legitimate educational merit and is only a tool leading to censorship.
Under certain limited conditions and situations presented by Hazelwood, school administrators may be permitted prior review of (mostly high school) student publications.
Until June 2005, the Hazelwood standard was not considered to apply to public college and university newspapers, a decision most recently affirmed in the 2001 appeals court decision in Kincaid v. Gibson. However, in June 2005, the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled, in Hosty v. Carter, that the Hazelwood standard could apply to student publications that were not "designated public forums," and in February 2006 the Supreme Court declined to hear the students' appeal. At this time, the Hosty decision applies only in the states of Illinois (including Chicago), Indiana and Wisconsin.
In response to the Kincaid decision, the California State Legislature passed AB 2581, which extended existing state-level statutory protection of high school student journalists to college and university students.[1] The bill was signed into law by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and took effect on January 1, 2007.
Controversy over alleged censorship actions has led some student newspapers to become independent organizations, such as The Daily Californian of the University of California, Berkeley in 1971, The Daily Orange of Syracuse University in 1971, The Independent Florida Alligator of the University of Florida in 1973, and The Cavalier Daily of the University of Virginia in 1979.

[edit] Cartoons controversy in student publications
Main article: Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
Gair rhydd, the student paper at Cardiff University, courted controversy when, on February 4, 2006, it reproduced the cartoons, originally printed in Jyllands-Posten, depicting the Prophet Muhammad. The issue was withdrawn from publication within a day of being released, the editor and two other student journalists were suspended, and a public apology published in the next issue.
In the same month, two editors of the Daily Illini, the independent student newspaper of the University of Illinois, were suspended after deciding to publish six of the twelve cartoons.
However, student publications took a lead role in reprinting the Muhammad cartoons, often accompanying them with explanatory editorials. No fewer than 16 student newspapers and magazines in the United States, and a handful in other countries, ran one or more of the caricatures.

[edit] Student press in Canada
Many student newspapers in Canada are truly independent from their universities and student unions. Such autonomous papers are funded by student fees won by referendums, as well as advertising, and are run democratically by their staffs, with no faculty interference.
About 70 of Canada's student newspapers belong to a co-operative and newswire service called the Canadian University Press, which holds conferences, has correspondents across the country, is run democratically by its member papers, and fosters a sense of community among Canadian student journalists.
Well-known Canadian student newspapers include The Cord Weekly (Wilfrid Laurier University), Imprint (University of Waterloo),The Martlet, The Ubyssey and The Peak in British Columbia; The Gateway in Alberta; The Sheaf in Saskatchewan; The Manitoban in Manitoba; The Charlatan, The Varsity, The Eyeopener (Ryerson University) , Arthur (Trent University) and the Excalibur in Ontario; the Link, The Concordian (Montreal), The McGill Daily, The Campus (Bishop's University) and McGill Tribune in Quebec; The Brunswickan in New Brunswick; The Dalhousie Gazette in Nova Scotia, The Muse in Newfoundland and Labrador, The Queen's Journal (Queen's University), and The Gazette at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario.
The oldest, continually published student newspapers in Canada are The Varsity (1880), The Queen's Journal (1873), and The Dalhousie Gazette (1868).

[edit] Student press in the United Kingdom
Student newspapers in the UK are often given a constitutionally-guaranteed editorial independence from the universities and student unions whose students they represent, although the majority are financially dependent on their Students' Union. The most successful (in terms of student media awards) include: The Oxford Student (University of Oxford), Cherwell (University of Oxford), gair rhydd (Cardiff University), The Beaver (London School of Economics), Glasgow University Guardian (Glasgow University),The Warwick Boar (University of Warwick), Leeds Student (University of Leeds), yorkVision (University of York), Student (University of Edinburgh) The Steel Press (University of Sheffield),The Courier (University of Newcastle), The Saint (University of St Andrews), Varsity, The Cambridge Student (University of Cambridge) and Epigram (University of Bristol). Examples of British student newspapers that are financially as well as editorially independent from their respective student unions are Cherwell, Varsity, The Saint, The Defender (University of Lincoln), Palatinate (Durham University) and The Founder (Royal Holloway). Since they are not part of their Students' Union at all, their independence is given a stronger guarantee than other papers who rely on their unions for funding and consequently cover stories with that in mind.In 2003, The National Student, the UK's first independent national student newspaper was launched.

[edit] Student press in Ireland
There is a thriving student media scene in Ireland. Each year the best publications in the field are recognized in the Irish Student Media Awards. For the last two years Trinity News has retained the Best Newspaper and Best Journalist awards. Trinity News is the oldest student newspaper in the country and is based in Trinity College Dublin
Within University College Cork the UCC Express is an editorially independent publication of the Students' Union.

[edit] Student press in Australia
University student newspapers in the Australia are usually independent of university administration yet are connected with or run by the student representative organisation operating at the campus. Editors tend to be elected by the student body on a separate ticket to other student representatives and are paid an honorarium, although some student organisations have been known to employ unelected staff to coordinate the production of the newspaper. For a list of student newspapers in Australia see * List of University Newspapers

[edit] Controversy surrounding Australian student press
Australian student newspapers have courted controversy since their inception. One of the more notorious of these controversies involved the publication of an article which allegedly incited readers to shoplift. The July edition of the magazine was banned by the Office of Film and Lifterature Classication following a campaign by conservative talkback radio hosts and other media to have the material banned. The four editors of the July 1995 edition of La Trobe University student magazine Rabelais were subsequently charged with publishing, distributing and depositing an objectionable publication. An objectional publication was defined in this case, as one that incites criminal activity.[2] The editors lodged an appeal, which led to a protracted four-year court case. The appeal was eventually defeated by the full bench of the Federal Court, who refused the editors application to appeal to the High Court of Australia.[3] The charges were eventually dropped in March 1999.

No comments:

Post a Comment